Bibliography

“3RP Regional Refugee & Resilience Plan 2017-2018 in Response to the Syria Crisis.” UNHCR, May 10, 2018. https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/63530.

Aarssen, Nicole. “Re-Orienting Refugee Representation? A Multimodal Analysis of Syrian Refugee Representation on the Social Media Platform Humans of New York.” Stream: Inspiring Critical Thought 9 (2017): 1–14.

Addario, Lynsey, Aryn Baker, and Francesca Trianni. “Finding Home.” TIME. Accessed March 20, 2019. http://time.com/finding-home-stories/.

Alper, Meryl. “War on Instagram: Framing Conflict Photojournalism with Mobile Photography Apps.” New Media & Society 16, no. 8 (December 1, 2014): 1233–48. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444813504265.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Revised edition. London New York: Verso, 2016.

Ascari, Maurizio. “The Dangers of Distant Reading: Reassessing Moretti’s Approach to Literary Genres.” Genre 47, no. 1 (April 1, 2014): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1215/00166928-2392348.

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. Key Concepts Series. London ; New York: Routledge, 1998.

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, and Bill Ashcroft. Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Baker, Aryn, Lynsey Addario, and Francesca Trianni. “Heln’s First Year.” TIME. Accessed March 18, 2019. http://time.com/finding-home/.

Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Translated by Sheila Faria Glaser. The Body, in Theory. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Bolter, J. David, and Richard A. Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1999.

Borges-Rey, Eddy. “News Images on Instagram.” Digital Journalism 3, no. 4 (July 4, 2015): 571–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2015.1034526.

Bowsza, Artur. “Internet Archeology with the Wayback Machine.” Elephate, March 20, 2018. https://www.elephate.com/blog/internet-archeology-wayback-machine/.

Brumberger, Eva. “The Rhetoric of Typography: Effects on Reading Time, Reading Comprehension, and Perceptions of Ethos.” Technical Communication 51, no. 1 (2004): 13–24.

Butler, Judith. Frames of War: When Is Life Grievable? Reprint edition. London ; New York: Verso, 2010.

Chouliaraki, Lilie. “Symbolic Bordering: The Self-Representation of Migrants and Refugees in Digital News.” Popular Communication 15, no. 2 (April 3, 2017): 78–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/15405702.2017.1281415.

———. “The Media as Moral Education: Mediation and Action.” Media, Culture & Society 30, no. 6 (November 1, 2008): 831–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443708096096.

Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong. “The Enduring Ephemeral, or the Future Is a Memory.” Critical Inquiry 35, no. 1 (2008): 148–71. https://doi.org/10.1086/595632.

Danesi, Marcel. The Semiotics of Emoji: The Rise of Visual Language in the Age of the Internet. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016.

 

Davenport, Thomas H., and John C. Beck. The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Harvard Business Press, 2001.

 

Derrida, Jacques. “Of Grammatology.” In Of Grammatology. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974. https://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/derrida.htm.

Dubinsky, Zach. “Smartphones Are a Lifeline, Not a Toy, for Syrian Refugees.” CBC News, September 12, 2015. https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/for-syrian-refugees-smartphones-are-a-lifeline-not-a-toy-1.3221349.

Giddens, Anthony. The Consequences of Modernity. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

Goldstone, Andrew. “Distant Reading: More Work to Be Done.” Andrew Goldstone, August 8, 2015. https://andrewgoldstone.com/blog/2015/08/08/distant/.

“Google Trends.” Google Trends. Accessed June 8, 2018. https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=syrian%20refugee&date=all.

Google, and UNHCR. “Searching for Syria.” Searching for Syria. Accessed May 16, 2018. https://searchingforsyria.org/en/.

Green, Molly. “Language Barriers and Health of Syrian Refugees in Germany.” American Journal of Public Health 107, no. 4 (March 8, 2017): 486–486. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303676.

GSMA Disaster Response. “The Importance of Mobile for Refugees: A Landscape of New Services and Approaches.” GSMA, January 2017. https://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/The-Importance-of-mobile-for-refugees_a-landscape-of-new-services-and-approaches.pdf.

Hall, Stuart, ed. “West and the Rest: Discourse and Power.” In Formations of Modernity, Reprinted., 276–331. Understanding Modern Societies 1. Oxford: Polity Press, 2011.

Harvey, David. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Wiley, 1992.

Hayles, Katherine. My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Hayles, N. Katherine. “Electronic Literature: What Is It?” The Electronic Literature Organization, January 2, 2007. https://eliterature.org/pad/elp.html.

———. “How We Read: Close, Hyper, Machine.” ADE Bulletin, 2010, 62–79. https://doi.org/10.1632/ade.150.62.

Heckman, Davin, and Serge Bouchardon. “Digital Manipulability and Digital Literature.” Electronic Book Review, August 5, 2012. https://electronicbookreview.com/essay/digital-manipulability-and-digital-literature/.

Herman, Jenny L. “#EatingfortheInsta: A Semiotic Analysis of Digital Representations of Food on Instagram.” Graduate Association for Food Studies 4, no. 2 (November 11, 2017). https://gradfoodstudies.org/2017/11/11/eating-for-the-insta/.

“Internet Archive: Wayback Machine.” Internet Archive: Wayback Machine. Accessed March 6, 2019. https://archive.org/web/.

Koons, Stephanie. “IST Researchers Explore Technology Use in Syrian Refugee Camp.” Penn State News, March 26, 2015. http://news.psu.edu/story/350156/2015/03/26/research/ist-researchers-explore-technology-use-syrian-refugee-camp.

Laurent, Olivier. “See How Refugees Use Selfies to Document Their Journey.” Time, May 14, 2018. http://time.com/4064988/refugee-crisis-selfies/.

LeBuhn, Mitra. “Picture This: The Role of Digital Storytelling in Motivating Donations towards Refugee Relief.” Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection, April 1, 2017. http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/isp_collection/2600.

Leetaru, Kalev. “The Internet Archive Turns 20: A Behind The Scenes Look At Archiving The Web.” Forbes, January 18, 2016. https://www.forbes.com/sites/kalevleetaru/2016/01/18/the-internet-archive-turns-20-a-behind-the-scenes-look-at-archiving-the-web/.

Literat, Ioana. “Refugee Selfies and the (Self-)Representation of Disenfranchised Social Groups.” Media Fields Journal: Critical Explorations in Media and Space, January 2017, 9.

Liu, Alan. “Where Is Cultural Criticism in the Digital Humanities?” Debates in the Digital Humanities, 2012. http://dhdebates.gc.cuny.edu/debates/text/20.

Mamdani, Mahmood. “Culture Talk: Or, How Not to Talk About Islam and Politics.” In Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror, 17–62. Harmony, 2005.

McLuhan, Marshall, and Lewis H. Lapham. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Reprint edition. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1994.

“Meme, n.” OED Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed March 20, 2019. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/239909.

“Migrant Crisis: Are These Happy Young Men Really Timid Souls Fleeing War and Persecution?” Express.co.uk, September 10, 2015. https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/603511/Migrant-crisis-refugees-take-selfie-photo-Greek-boat-Lesbos-Syria-war.

Moretti, Franco. “Conjectures on World Literature.” New Left Review 1 (2000). https://newleftreview.org/II/1/franco-moretti-conjectures-on-world-literature.

Murray, Susan. “Digital Images, Photo-Sharing, and Our Shifting Notions of Everyday Aesthetics.” Journal of Visual Culture 7, no. 2 (August 1, 2008): 147–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470412908091935.

Noble, Safiya Umoja. Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. NYU Press, 2018.

O’Keefe, Bill. “Poverty Stricken Syrian Migrant Takes Selfie with Her $600 Smartphone.” Tweet. @thatbillokeefe (blog), September 5, 2015. https://twitter.com/thatbillokeefe/status/640216875163631616.

O’Leary, Caroline. “Sex Trafficking and the Refugee Crisis: Exploiting the Vulnerable.” Council on Foreign Relations, May 8, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/blog/sex-trafficking-and-refugee-crisis-exploiting-vulnerable.

O’Malley, James. “Stop Acting Surprised That Refugees Have Smartphones.” The Independent, September 7, 2015. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/surprised-that-syrian-refugees-have-smartphones-well-sorry-to-break-this-to-you-but-youre-an-idiot-10489719.html.

O’Neil, Cathy. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. 1 edition. New York: Crown, 2016.

Pater, Ruben. The Politics of Design: A (Not So) Global Design Manual for Visual Communication. Laurence King Publishing, 2016.

“Phones Are Now Indispensable for Refugees.” The Economist, February 11, 2017. https://www.economist.com/news/international/21716637-technology-has-made-migrating-europe-easier-over-time-it-will-also-make-migration.

Queen, Mary. “Transnational Feminist Rhetorics in a Digital World.” College English 70, no. 5 (2008): 471–89. https://doi.org/10.2307/25472284.

Risam, Roopika. “Beyond the Margins: Intersectionality and the Digital Humanities.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 9 (September 2, 2015). http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/9/2/000208/000208.html.

———. “Now You See Them: Self-Representation and the Refugee Selfie.” Popular Communication 16, no. 1 (January 2, 2018): 58–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/15405702.2017.1413191.

Said, Edward W. Orientalism. 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.

“Searching for Syria.” R/GA Transformation at Speed. Accessed March 5, 2019. https://www.rga.com/work/case-studies/searching-for-syria.

“Searching for Syria.” Google. Accessed March 5, 2019. //www.google.com/main/searching-for-syria-searches-about-refugee-crisis/.

Shifman, Limor. “The Cultural Logic of Photo-Based Meme Genres.” Journal of Visual Culture 13, no. 3 (December 1, 2014): 340–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470412914546577.

Sigal, Ivan. “Syria’s War May Be the Most Documented Ever. And yet, We Know so Little.” Public Radio International, December 19, 2016. https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-12-19/syrias-war-may-be-most-documented-ever-and-yet-we-know-so-little.

Sosnoski, James. “Hyper-Readers and Their Reading Engines.” In Passions Pedagogies and 21st Century Technologies, edited by Gail E. Hawisher and Cynthia L. Selfe, 161–77. Urbana, Illinois: Utah State University Press, 1999. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=2138&site=ehost-live.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” In Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, edited by Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman, 66–110. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

———. The Post-Colonial Critic: Interviews, Strategies, Dialogues. Psychology Press, 1990.

Srinivasan, Ramesh. Whose Global Village?: Rethinking How Technology Shapes Our World. NYU Press, 2018.

StartedGivingBlood. “R/Metacanada – ‘Refugees’ Using Selfie Sticks.” Reddit (blog). Accessed March 20, 2019. https://www.reddit.com/r/metacanada/comments/aazn9f/refugees_using_selfie_sticks/.

“Syria Emergency.” UNHCR, April 19, 2018. http://www.unhcr.org/syria-emergency.html.

“The Mobile Economy Middle East and North Africa 2016.” GSMA Intelligence, 2016. https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/?file=9246bbe14813f73dd85b97a90738c860&download.

Ticktin, Miriam. “A World without Innocence.” American Ethnologist 44, no. 4 (2017): 577–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12558.

———. “Thinking Beyond Humanitarian Borders.” Social Research: An International Quarterly 83, no. 2 (October 4, 2016): 255–71.

Time. “How a Photo of a Drowned Syrian Boy Became the Defining Photograph of an Ongoing War.” 100 Photographs: The Most Influential Images of All Time. Accessed May 25, 2018. http://100photos.time.com/photos/nilufer-demir-alan-kurdi.

“#TransformDH.” #TransformDH. Accessed June 17, 2018. http://transformdh.org/.

Tsatsou, Panayiota. “Reconceptualising ‘Time’ and ‘Space’ in the Era of Electronic Media and Communications.” Platform: Journal of Media and Communication 1, no. 1 (2009): 11–32.

UNHCR. “Situation Syria Regional Refugee Response.” Operation Portal: Refugee Situations, May 24, 2018. https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/syria.

———. “What They Took With Them.” #WithRefugees, September 7, 2016. http://www.unhcr.org/refugeeday/us/what-they-took-with-them/.

UNICEF. “#ChildrenofSyria.” #ChildrenofSyria, 2015. http://childrenofsyria.info/.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. “Mobile Connectivity a Lifeline for Refugees, Report Finds.” UNHCR, September 14, 2016. http://www.unhcr.org/afr/news/latest/2016/9/57d7d4478/mobile-connectivity-lifeline-refugees-report-finds.html.

Vaisman, Carmel L. “Pretty in Pink vs Pretty in Black: Blogs as Gendered Avatars.” Visual Communication 15, no. 3 (August 1, 2016): 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357216643909.

“Wayback Machine: Searchingforsyria.Org/En/.” Internet Archive: Wayback Machine, October 1, 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20171001000000*/searchingforsyria.org/en/.

“Willy Kaemena, Panoramic Photographer – 360Cities.” Accessed June 17, 2018. https://www.360cities.net/profile/willy-kaemena.

Wood, David, and Robert Bernasconi. Derrida and Différance. Northwestern University Press, 1988.

“WorldWidePanorama – Contributor: Willy Kaemena.” Accessed June 17, 2018. http://worldwidepanorama.org/worldwidepanorama/wwppeople/html/WillyKaemena.html.

Zubinsky, Zach. “Smartphones Are a Lifeline, Not a Toy, for Syrian Refugees.” CBC, September 12, 2015. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/for-syrian-refugees-smartphones-are-a-lifeline-not-a-toy-1.3221349.

Image Sources

Front Page, Banner Image:  Behrakis, Yannis. 2015. An immigrant who arrived on a dingy from Turkey uses his mobile phone on Kos Island, Greece. JPEG. Thomson Reuters. https://cdn.theatlantic.com/assets/media/img/mt/2015/10/Migrant_1/lead_720_405.jpg?mod=1533691781.

Background Page, Banner Image: Lima, Mauricio. 2015. A group of Syrian migrants charged their cellphones using a television station’s satellite truck outside the Keleti train station last week in Budapest. JPEG. The New York Times. https://static01.nyt.com/images/2015/09/07/world/07cellphones-web/07cellphones-web-jumbo.jpg.

Theoretical Framework, Banner Image: Beshara, Louai. 2018. Wreckage of a building described as part of the Scientific Studies and Research Centre (SSRC) compound in the Barzeh district, north of Damascus, in a photo from April. JPEG. AFP/Getty Images. https://media.npr.org/assets/img/2018/08/07/gettyimages-946175796_wide-798d87dd53f6ea4d287d3b6cfcb6c20e392694ab-s1600-c85.jpg.

Methodology Page, Banner Image: Spiske, Markus. Image of computer monitor with code. JPEG. Stock Snap. https://cdn.stocksnap.io/img-thumbs/960w/9OQTUSUS0M.jpg.

Case Studies Page, Banner Image: Anera. Photograph of Walla, a 17 year old from Fnaydeh, learning how to use Microsoft Office. JPEG. Anera. https://www.anera.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/bln7.jpg.

Case Studies Page, Refugee Selfies Icon: Romenzi, Alessio. On 13 September, three men who are asylum-seekers from the Syrian Arab Republic use a mobile phone to take a selfie upon their arrival on the shores of the island of Lesbos, in the North Aegean region. JPEG. UNICEF. http://s21028.pcdn.co/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/UNI197007_Med-Res.jpg.

Conclusion, Banner Image: Mercy Corps. 2017. A refugee boat filled with Syrian refugees, stranded for six hours due to engine failure, is rescued by international aid workers who rented a fishing boat in order to secure the dinghy. JPEG. Mercy Corps. https://www.mercycorps.org/sites/default/files/greece-201509-kaigner-0035.jpg.

Bibliography, Banner Image: Konstantinidis, Alkis. 2015. Syrian refugees take selfies moments after arriving on a dinghy on the Greek island of Lesbos. JPEG. Thomson Reuters. https://amp.businessinsider.com/images/586bfe77ee14b61c008b640d-1136-757.jpg.